Titus Salt, 1803–76

Saltaire, West Yorkshire, UK; 1853

Mechanized industrial production was pioneered in textile mills in the north of England and it eventually changed the whole rhythm of life. The old agricultural calendar had its seasons: a time to sow, a time to reap, times when the earth was fallow, times when animals were being born. A machine, by contrast, could be active for as long as there was someone to tend it, at any time of the year, at any hour of the day or night.

Richard Arkwright is credited with the invention during the 1770s of shift-working, at his mill at Cromford in the Derwent Valley, Derbyshire, as a way to keep ...

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