Athens, Greece; 447–432 BCE

Revered as one of the world’s outstanding artistic accomplishments, the Parthenon is an international symbol of Greece. It was both an extravagance and a complex achievement that drew on the knowledge of earlier structures, but it is more refined and sophisticated than its predecessors.

The Parthenon was a temple dedicated to Athena, who gave her name to the city of Athens. It was built on a rocky outcrop that had once been a fortified citadel but by the fifth century BCE had become a sacred precinct – the Acropolis – with several important buildings on it, including the Erechtheion, where religious ...

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