Machu Picchu

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Peru; 1450–1572

Cusi Inca Yupanqui (1438–71) lived at Cuzco. His father was king and his elder brother was crown prince. But, when Cuzco came under attack, it was Cusi who rallied the defence and routed the enemy, earning for himself the name Pachacuti, meaning ‘the earth-shaker’.

Pachacuti not only took over the throne but also went on to make conquests and strike alliances that would give rise over three generations of the Inca family to the most extensive empire that South America had ever seen. Everything changed after 1532, however, with the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors, who brought with them their own imperial ambitions ...

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