The University as a System

Kaufman (1988, 2006) defines a system as “the sum total of parts working independently and working together to achieve required results based upon needs.” Bounds et al. (1994) expand upon that definition by stating that “…a system consists of an integrated collection of personnel, knowledge, abilities, motivations, equipment, machinery, methods, measure, processes and task activities.” A system is typically depicted in terms of its inputs, transformations, and results (see Figure 1-1). Kaufman stresses in his Organizational Elements Model (OEM) the importance of aligning the inputs, processes, and results. He furthermore defines the results as consisting of products, outputs, and outcomes. Products are the results and ...

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