Leaders also use programs, management systems, and structural features to determine what types of changes are desirable and to facilitate innovation and collective learning:

Intrapreneurship programs. New ideas are fragile and do not have a long life expectancy once exposed to a hostile environment (one featuring, for example, the “not invented here” syndrome, a lack of resources and support, or bureaucratic red tape). An intrapreneurship program provides an opportunity to develop new ideas to the point where they can be fairly evaluated.

External benchmarking. Benchmarking is the process of measuring one's own products, services, and practices against those of competitors and companies recognized as industry leaders. By ...

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