This article is based on a research paper written by Stéphane Brutus, Ann Marie Ryan, Gary Greguras, and Milton D. Hakel Jr. and presented at the 1998 annual meeting of the Academy of Management in San Diego, where it received the Best Paper Award for the Management Education and Development Division. Our sincere thanks to Cynthia D. McCauley and Walter W. Tornow for supporting and facilitating the completion of this project.

Stéphane Brutus, formerly a research associate at CCL in Greensboro, is assistant professor of management at Concordia University in Montreal. He holds a Ph.D. degree from Bowling Green State University.

Lily Kelly-Radford is vice president for educational programs at CCL. She holds a Ph.D. degree from ...

Get Leadership in Action: Leadership Briefing - Receptivity to Feedback now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from nearly 200 publishers.