When leaders talk about control they will often speak at length about core corporate systems such as:
- Information management and reporting systems
- Financial and management accounting systems
- Reward and measurement systems
- Standardisation of procedures and processes
- Audit and governance
All of this would be sophisticated nonsense to the ears of tribal people, who simply would not know what any of it meant. And yet it is clear that most of them have very high standards of control: there is not much deviancy within any tribe. So there must be something else which they do to achieve control.
In practice, there are two other sorts of control that leaders can learn from history.
First, tribes achieve high degrees of control through ...