Chapter 5
Integrating SHE, Planned 
Maintenance, and 
Early Management
The worst thing is to rush into action before the consequences
have been properly debated. We are capable at the same time
of taking risks and estimating them beforehand.
Pericles’ funeral oration
(in Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian
Warscirca 430 BC) Quoted in Kletz, 1999
5.1  Rationale behind the Integration 
ofPlanned Maintenance and SHE
The basic objective of the planned maintenance or PM pillar (Keikaku Hozen
in Japanese) is to eliminate equipment failures and breakdowns and thereby
achieve uninterrupted and optimal production.
The PM pillar aims to estab-
lish and implement an effective maintenance strategy for facility equipment
and systems that increases their reliability and safety, provides high service
levels throughout the life of the assets, and maximizes the benet of limited
maintenance resources. Effective integration of the PM and SHE pillars is
essential to achieving these goals of the PM pillar, and to the ultimate success
of an organizations TPM and Lean initiative. Application of the SHE pillars
106 ◾  Lean Sustainability
systematic approach to hazard recognition, assessment, and control to main-
tenance tasks is vital to safeguarding site personnel and ensuring the effective
utilization of the organizations limited skilled maintenance resources.
By integrating the TPM SHE and planned maintenance or effective main-
tenance pillars, an organization will reduce the risk of injury and environ-
mental incidents by
1. Preventing equipment failures that could result in accidents or incidents
2. Reducing the exposure of maintenance and operating personnel to
unreliable and unsafe equipment
3. Improving implementation and control of the equipment-servicing
activities of site personnel
4. Reducing operator errors through the transfer of equipment knowledge
from skilled maintenance staff to operating personnel
5. Incorporation of equipment learning and best practices into autono-
mous maintenance procedures and improved equipment design
6. Ensuring the competence and qualification of all personnel who perform
specialized and potentially hazardous equipment-related tasks such as
welding, lifting heavy loads, electrical tasks, confined space entry, work
at heights, refrigeration repair, pressure vessel operations, and so on
Certain inspection and maintenance activities lie beyond the scope of the
autonomous maintenance performed by equipment operators, including
Equipment assessment and repair tasks requiring specialized skills
Overhaul repair in which deterioration is not visible from the outside
Repairs to equipment that is hard to disassemble and reassemble
Tasks requiring special measurements
Tasks posing substantial safety risks, such as working in confined
spaces or working at heights
The PM pillar is concerned with ensuring that these tasks performed by
maintenance specialists are conducted effectively, efficiently, and safely.
5.2  Safety Permit Systems
The efficient and safe execution of routine production and maintenance
tasks is generally accomplished by means of detailed written job procedures
or job safety analyses (JSAs) that outline the hazards and associated safety

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