INTRODUCTION

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We use computers to accomplish tasks and to solve problems. For example, perhaps you’ve used a word processor to write an essay or letter. Perhaps you’ve used a spreadsheet program to organize your finances. Perhaps you’ve used an image editor to touch up a picture. It’s hard to imagine doing these things these days without a computer. We get a lot of mileage out of our word processors and spreadsheet programs and image editors.

Those programs are written as general-purpose tools to accomplish a wide variety of tasks. Ultimately, though, they’re programs written by others, not by us. What do we do when an off-the-shelf program doesn’t ...

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