Respondents, Operants, and Emergents
Respondents, Operants, and Emergents:Toward an Integrated Perspective on Behavior
Duane M. Rumbaugh, David A. Washburn, and William A. HillixGeorgia State University and San Diego State University
Key Words: respondents, operants, emergents, competence, comparative
A triarchic organization of behavior, building on Skinner’s description of respondents and operants, is proposed by introducing a third class of behavior called “emergents.” Emergents are new responses, never specifically reinforced, that require operations more complex than association. Some of these operations occur naturally only in animals above a minimum level of brain complexity, and are developed in an interaction ...