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Learning AWS - Second Edition by Amit Shah, Aurobindo Sarkar

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Instance availability

The guideline here is to never run a single instance in a production environment. The simplest approach to improving availability is to spin up multiple EC2 instances and stick an ELB in front of them. The incoming request load is shared by all the instances behind the load balancer.

ELBs use a least connections algorithm to spread requests across healthy instances. Least connections target instances with the fewest outstanding requests and adjust to the request response times of an instance. For example, slower response times from an instance will result in that machine receiving fewer requests. 

Even though it is not recommended to have different instance sizes, within a specific tier, between or within the AZs, ...

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