Descriptive statistics are functions that summarize a given dataset, typically where the dataset represents a population or sample of a single variable (univariate data). They describe the dataset and form measures of a central tendency and measures of variability and dispersion.

For example, the following are descriptive statistics:

- The distribution (for example, normal, Poisson)
- The central tendency (for example, mean, median, and mode)
- The dispersion (for example, variance, standard deviation)

As we will see, the pandas `Series` and `DataFrame` objects have integrated support for a large number of descriptive statistics.