2.1. Functional and social acceptance of robots
Learning with robots demands acceptance of robots in order to share several functional and social tasks with them [FRI 14]. Acceptance is a sensitive topic of investigation (e.g. [KAP 04, RIE 08, HEE 09, WEI 09, YOU 09, SAL 10, WEL 10, DE 13]) in the field of human–robot interaction (HRI) research that addresses the design, understanding and evaluation of robotic systems, which involve humans and robots interacting through communication [MUR 10]. Traditionally defined as “the demonstrable willingness within a user group to employ information technology for the tasks it is designed to support” within the field of the User Acceptance of Information Technology [DIL 01], acceptance takes on a new significance when referred to robots.
Through an attentive survey of the literature, we can identify six connotations of robot acceptance: representational, physical, behavioral, functional, social and cultural1 [GAU 16a]. Among these dimensions, functional and social acceptances appear to play a key role for effective interaction in educational contexts [PIC 05, ZAA 08, WEI 09, FRI 14].
Functional acceptance refers to the level of perceived ease of use, usefulness [HEE 09, WEI 09], accuracy [BEE 11, SCH 13] and innovativeness [ROG 95, KAP 05] of the robot. Social acceptance covers a variety of issues such as social presence [HAM 06b, RIE 13], perceived sociability – often ...