Conclusion: twenty essential applications of the tools

Understand how science progresses and why scientists sometimes disagree

1. Legitimate criticism can be distinguished from science bashing.

Those who poke fun at science because it is incomplete, uncertain, and tentative either utterly misunderstand what science is, or are misrepresenting it to promote their own agendas. It is legitimate to identify gaps and inconsistencies in knowledge to point out where more work needs to be done, or to call for caution in interpreting findings, but uncertainty is not a reason to simply dismiss the scientific research.

2. Claims about scientific disputes or consensus should not be taken at face value.

Since science is a work in progress, it ...

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