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Linear Electric Machines, Drives, and MAGLEVs Handbook

Book Description

Based on author Ion Boldea’s 40 years of experience and the latest research, Linear Electric Machines, Drives, and Maglevs Handbook provides a practical and comprehensive resource on the steady improvement in this field. The book presents in-depth reviews of basic concepts and detailed explorations of complex subjects, including classifications and practical topologies, with sample results based on an up-to-date survey of the field.

Packed with case studies, this state-of-the-art handbook covers topics such as modeling, steady state, and transients as well as control, design, and testing of linear machines and drives. It includes discussion of types and applications—from small compressors for refrigerators to MAGLEV transportation—of linear electric machines. Additional topics include low and high speed linear induction or synchronous motors, with and without PMs, with progressive or oscillatory linear motion, from topologies through modeling, design, dynamics, and control.

With a breadth and depth of coverage not found in currently available references, this book includes formulas and methods that make it an authoritative and comprehensive resource for use in R&D and testing of innovative solutions to new industrial challenges in linear electric motion/energy automatic control.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1 Fields, Forces, and Materials for LEMs
    1. 1.1 Review of Electromagnetic Field Theory
      1. 1.1.1 Poisson, Laplace, and Helmholtz Equations
      2. 1.1.2 Boundary Conditions
      3. 1.1.3 Energy Relations
      4. 1.1.4 Resistor, Inductor, and Capacitor
    2. 1.2 Forces in Electromagnetic Fields of Primitive LEMs
    3. 1.3 Magnetic, Electric, and Insulation Materials for LEMs
      1. 1.3.1 Soft Magnetic Materials
      2. 1.3.2 Permanent Magnets
      3. 1.3.3 Magnetic Core Losses
    4. 1.4 Electric Conductors and Their Skin Effects
    5. 1.5 Insulation Materials for LEMs
      1. 1.5.1 Piezoelectric and Magnetostriction Effect Materials in LEMs
    6. 1.6 Magnetostriction Effect LEMs
    7. 1.7 Methods of Approach
    8. 1.8 Summary
    9. References
  8. Chapter 2 Classifications and Applications of LEMs
    1. 2.1 Linear Induction Machines
    2. 2.2 Linear Synchronous Motors for Transportation
    3. 2.3 Industrial Usage Linear Synchronous Machines
    4. 2.4 Solenoids and Linear Oscillatory Machines
    5. 2.5 Summary
    6. References
  9. Chapter 3 Linear Induction Motors: Topologies, Fields, Forces, and Powers Including Edge, End, and Skin Effects
    1. 3.1 Topologies of Practical Interest
    2. 3.2 Specific LIM Phenomena
      1. 3.2.1 Skin Effect
      2. 3.2.2 Large Airgap Fringing
      3. 3.2.3 Primary Slot Opening Influence on Equivalent Magnetic Airgap
      4. 3.2.4 Edge Effects
      5. 3.2.5 Edge Effects for SLIMs
    3. 3.3 Dynamic End-Effect Quasi-One-Dimensional Field Theory
      1. 3.3.1 Dynamic End-Effect Waves
      2. 3.3.2 Dynamic End-Effect Consequences in a DLIM
      3. 3.3.3 Dynamic End Effect in SLIMs
    4. 3.4 Summary of Analytical Field Theories of LIMs
    5. 3.5 Finite Element Field Analysis of LIMs
    6. 3.6 Dynamic End-Effect Compensation
      1. 3.6.1 Designing at Optimum Goodness Factor
      2. 3.6.2 LIMs in Row and Connected in Series
      3. 3.6.3 PM Wheel for End-Effect Compensation
    7. 3.7 Summary
    8. References
  10. Chapter 4 Linear Induction Motors: Circuit Theories, Transients, and Control
    1. 4.1 Low-Speed/High-Speed Divide
    2. 4.2 LIM Circuit Models without Dynamic End Effect
      1. 4.2.1 Low-Speed Flat DLIMs
    3. 4.3 Flat SLIMs with AL-on-Iron Long (Fix) Secondary
    4. 4.4 Flat SLIMs with Ladder Secondary
    5. 4.5 Tubular SLIM with Ladder Secondary
    6. 4.6 Circuit Models of High-Speed (High Goodness Factor) SLIMs
    7. 4.7 Low-Speed LIM Transients and Control
      1. 4.7.1 Space–Phasor (dq) Model
    8. 4.8 Control of Low-Speed LIMs
      1. 4.8.1 Scalar I1 – Sf1 Close-Loop Control
      2. 4.8.2 Vector Control of Low-Speed LIMs
      3. 4.8.3 Sensorless Direct Thrust and Flux Control of Low-Speed LIMs
    9. 4.9 High-Speed LIM Transients and Control
    10. 4.10 DTFC of High-Speed LIMs
    11. 4.11 Summary
    12. References
  11. Chapter 5 Design of Flat and Tubular Low-Speed LIMs
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Flat SLIM with Ladder Long Secondary and Short Primary
    3. 5.3 Tubular SLIM with Cage Secondary
    4. 5.4 Summary
    5. References
  12. Chapter 6 Transportation (Medium- and High-Speed) SLIM Design
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Urban SLIM Vehicles (Medium Speeds)
    3. 6.3 High-Speed (Interurban) SLIM Vehicles Design
    4. 6.4 Optimization Design of SLIM: Urban Vehicles
    5. 6.5 Summary
    6. References
  13. Chapter 7 DC-Excited Linear Synchronous Motors (DCE-LSM): Steady State, Design, Transients, and Control
    1. 7.1 Introduction and Topologies
    2. 7.2 DC Exciter (Inductor) Design Guidelines
    3. 7.3 Stator (Armature) Core Design
    4. 7.4 DCE-LSM Parameters and Performance
    5. 7.5 Circuit Model for Transients and Control
    6. 7.6 Field-Oriented Control of DCE-LSM
    7. 7.7 Note on PM + DCE-LSM
    8. 7.8 Summary
    9. References
  14. Chapter 8 Superconducting Magnet Linear Synchronous Motors
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Superconducting Magnet
    3. 8.3 Technical Field and Circuit Theory of SM-LSM
      1. 8.3.1 Magnetic Field of a Rectangular SM in Air
      2. 8.3.2 emf E1, Inductance and Resistance Ls, Rs per Phase
      3. 8.3.3 Phasor Diagram, Power Factor, and Efficiency
      4. 8.3.4 Numerical Example 8.1
    4. 8.4 Normal and Lateral Forces
      1. 8.4.1 Numerical Example 8.2
    5. 8.5 SM-LSM with Eight-Shape-Stator Coils
    6. 8.6 Control of SM-LSM
    7. 8.7 Summary
    8. References
  15. Chapter 9 Homopolar Linear Synchronous Motors (H-LSM): Modeling, Design, and Control
    1. 9.1 H-LSM: Construction and Principle Issues
    2. 9.2 DC Homopolar Excitation Airgap Flux Density and AC emf E1
    3. 9.3 Armature Reaction and Magnetization Synchronous Inductances Ldm and Lqm
    4. 9.4 Longitudinal End Effect in H-LSM
    5. 9.5 Preliminary Design Methodology by Example
      1. 9.5.1 Armature AC Winding Specifics and Phasor Diagram
      2. 9.5.2 Primary Core Teeth Saturation Limit
      3. 9.5.3 Preliminary Design Expressions
    6. 9.6 H-LSM Model for Transients and Control
    7. 9.7 Vector Thrust (Propulsion) and Flux (Suspension) Control
    8. 9.8 Summary
    9. References
  16. Chapter 10 Linear Reluctance Synchronous Motors: Modeling, Performance Design, and Control
    1. 10.1 Ldm, Lqm Magnetization Inductances of Continuous Secondary (Standard) L-RSM
    2. 10.2 Ldm, Lqm Magnetization Inductances for Segmented Secondary L-RSM
    3. 10.3 Ldm, Lqm (Magnetization) Inductances in Multiple Flux Barrier Secondary L-RSM
    4. 10.4 Reduction of Thrust Pulsations
    5. 10.5 dq (Space Phasor) Model of L-RSM
    6. 10.6 Steady-State Characteristics for Vector Control Strategies
    7. 10.7 Design Methodology for Low Speed by Example
    8. 10.8 Control of L-RSM
      1. 10.8.1 “Active Flux” Vector Control of L-RSM
      2. 10.8.2 Direct Thrust and Normal Force (Levitation) Control
    9. 10.9 Summary
    10. References
  17. Chapter 11 Linear Switched Reluctance Motors (L-SRM): Modeling, Design, and Control
    1. 11.1 Practical Topologies
    2. 11.2 Principle of Operation
    3. 11.3 Instantaneous Thrust
    4. 11.4 Average Thrust and Energy Conversion Ratio
    5. 11.5 Converter Rating
    6. 11.6 State Space Equations and Equivalent Circuit
    7. 11.7 Small Signal Model of L-SRM
    8. 11.8 PWM Converters for L-SRMs
    9. 11.9 Design Methodology by Example
      1. 11.9.1 L-SRM Control
      2. 11.9.2 Note on Motion-Sensorless Control
    10. 11.10 Summary
    11. References
  18. Chapter 12 Flat Linear Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
    1. 12.1 A Few Practical Topologies
    2. 12.2 Multilayer Field Model of Iron-Core F-LPMSMs with Sinusoidal emfs and Currents
    3. 12.3 Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC) Theory of Iron-Core F-LPMSM
    4. 12.4 Analytical Multilayer Field Theory of Air-Core F-LPMSM
    5. 12.5 Cogging Force and Longitudinal End Effects
      1. 12.5.1 End Effects in 2(4) Pole PM-Secondary F-LPMSMs
    6. 12.6 dq Model of F-LPMSM with Sinusoidal emf
    7. 12.7 Steady-State Characteristics for Typical Control Strategies
      1. 12.7.1 Maximum Thrust per Current Characteristics (Ld=Lq=Ls)
      2. 12.7.2 Maximum Thrust/Flux (Ld=Lq=Ls)
    8. 12.8 F-LPMSM Control
      1. 12.8.1 Field Oriented Control (FOC)
      2. 12.8.2 Direct Thrust and Flux (Levitation) Control (DTFC) of F-LPMSMs
    9. 12.9 Design Methodology of L-PMSM by Example
      1. 12.9.1 PM-Secondary Sizing
      2. 12.9.2 Primary Sizing
      3. 12.9.3 Circuit Parameters and Vector Diagram
      4. 12.9.4 Number of Turns per Coil W, and Wire Gauge dCo
      5. 12.9.5 Efficiency, Power Factor, and Voltage at Base Thrust
      6. 12.9.6 Primary Active Weight
      7. 12.9.7 Design Summary
      8. 12.9.8 Note on F-LPMSM as Three-Phase Generators
    10. 12.10 Summary
    11. References
  19. Chapter 13 Tubular Linear Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
    1. 13.1 A Few Practical Topologies
    2. 13.2 Fractionary (q ≤ 1) Three-Phase AC Winding
      1. 13.2.1 Cogging Force
    3. 13.3 Technical Field Theory of T-LPMSM
    4. 13.4 Circuit dq Model of T-LPMSM
    5. 13.5 Advanced Analytical Field Theories of T-LPMSMs
      1. 13.5.1 PM Field Distribution
    6. 13.6 Core Losses
    7. 13.7 Control of T-LPMSMs
      1. 13.7.1 Field-Oriented Control
      2. 13.7.2 Direct Thrust and Flux Control
    8. 13.8 Design Methodology
      1. 13.8.1 Design of Magnetic Circuit
      2. 13.8.2 Airgap Flux Density BgSPM
      3. 13.8.3 Slot mmf for Peak Thrust
      4. 13.8.4 Circuit Parameters
      5. 13.8.5 Number of Turns per Coil nc (All Four Circular Shape Coils per Phase in Series)
      6. 13.8.6 Copper Losses and Efficiency
    9. 13.9 Generator Design Methodology
      1. 13.9.1 Generator Control Design Aspects
    10. 13.10 Summary
    11. References
  20. Chapter 14 Multi-Pole Coil Three- or Two-Phase Linear PM Reluctance Motors
    1. 14.1 Few Practical Topologies
      1. 14.1.1 Sawyer Linear PM Motor
      2. 14.1.2 “Flux-Reversal” Configuration
      3. 14.1.3 “Flux-Switching” Linear PM Reluctance Motors
      4. 14.1.4 Flux-Reversal PM-Secondary Linear Reluctance Motors
      5. 14.1.5 Transverse-Flux Linear PM Reluctance Motors
      6. 14.1.6 Discussion
    2. 14.2 Technical Theory of Flux-Reversal IPM-Primary LPMRM
    3. 14.3 Numerical Example 14.1: FR-LPMRM Design
    4. 14.4 Transverse-Flux LPMRM Technical Theory
    5. 14.5 Example 14.2: TF-LPMRM
    6. 14.6 Example 14.3: TF-LPMRG Energy Converter
    7. 14.7 Summary
    8. References
  21. Chapter 15 Plunger Solenoids and Their Control
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Principles
    3. 15.3 Linear Circuit Model
    4. 15.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Saturation
    5. 15.5 Dynamic Nonlinear Magnetic and Electric Circuit Model
    6. 15.6 PM-Less Solenoid Design and Control
      1. 15.6.1 Bouncing Reduction
      2. 15.6.2 FEM Direct Geometric Optimization Design
    7. 15.7 PM Plunger Solenoid
      1. 15.7.1 PM Shielding Solenoids
      2. 15.7.2 PM-Assisted Solenoid Power Breaker
    8. 15.8 Case Study: PM Twin-Coil Valve Actuators
      1. 15.8.1 Topology and Principle
      2. 15.8.2 FEM Analysis
      3. 15.8.3 Direct Geometrical FEM Optimization Design
      4. 15.8.4 FEM-Assisted Circuit Model and Open-Loop Dynamics
      5. 15.8.5 FEM-Assisted Position Estimator
      6. 15.8.6 Close-Loop Position Sensor and Sensorless Control
    9. 15.9 Summary
    10. References
  22. Chapter 16 Linear DC PM Brushless Motors
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Topology Aspects
    3. 16.3 Principle and Analytical Modeling
    4. 16.4 Geometrical Optimization Design by FEM
    5. 16.5 Air-Core Configuration Design Aspects
    6. 16.6 Design for Given Dynamics Specifications
    7. 16.7 Close-Loop Position Control for a Digital Video Camera Focuser
    8. 16.8 Summary
    9. References
  23. Chapter 17 Resonant Linear Oscillatory Single-Phase PM Motors/Generators
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Coil-Mover LOMs (LOGs)
      1. 17.2.1 Four-Coil-Mover LOM: Modeling and Design by Example
    3. 17.2.1.1 Airgap: PM Flux Density
    4. 17.2.1.2 Inductance
    5. 17.2.1.3 Core Sizing and Core Losses
    6. 17.2.1.4 The Phasor Diagram
    7. 17.2.1.5 The Number of Turns per Coil nc
      1. 17.2.2 Integrated Microspeakers and Receivers
    8. 17.3 PM-Mover LOM(G)
      1. 17.3.1 Tubular Homopolar LOM(G)
      2. 17.3.2 25 W, 270 Hz, Tubular Multi-PM-Mover Multi-Coil LOM: Analysis by Example
    9. 17.3.2.1 General Design Aspects
    10. 17.3.2.2 Optimization Methodology by Example
    11. 17.3.2.3 FEM Analysis
    12. 17.3.2.4 Simplified Linear Circuit Model for Steady State and Transients
    13. 17.3.2.5 Nonlinear Circuit Model and MATLAB® Code with Digital Simulation Results
    14. 17.3.3 Double-Sided Flat PM-Mover LOM
    15. 17.3.3.1 State-Space Model of the Linear Machine
    16. 17.3.3.2 FEM Analysis
    17. 17.3.3.3 Nonlinear Model
    18. 17.3.3.4 Parameters Estimation
    19. 17.3.3.5 Further Performance Improvements
    20. 17.4 Iron-Mover Stator PM LOMs
    21. 17.5 Linear Oscillatory Generator Control
    22. 17.6 LOM Control
    23. 17.7 Summary
    24. References
  24. Chapter 18 Multiaxis Linear PM Motor Drives
    1. 18.1 Large x–y (Planar) Motion PM Drive Topologies
    2. 18.2 Modeling of Large Travel Planar Linear PM Drives with Rectangular AC Coils
    3. 18.3 Planar Linear PM Motor Micron Positioning Control for Millimeter Range Travel
    4. 18.4 Six DOF Control of a MAGLEV Stage
    5. 18.5 Multiaxis Nanometer-Positioning MAGLEV Stage
    6. 18.6 Summary
    7. References
  25. Chapter 19 Attraction Force (Electromagnetic) Levitation Systems
    1. 19.1 Competitive Topologies
    2. 19.2 Simplified Analytical Model
    3. 19.3 Analytical Modeling of Longitudinal End Effect
    4. 19.4 Preliminary Design Methodology
    5. 19.5 Dynamic Modeling of ALS Control
    6. 19.6 State Feedback Control of ALS
    7. 19.7 Control System Performance Assessment
    8. 19.8 Control Performance Example
    9. 19.9 Vehicle Lifting at Standstill
    10. 19.10 Robust Control Systems for ALSs
    11. 19.11 Zero Power Sliding Mode Control for PM-Assisted ALSs
    12. 19.12 Summary
    13. References
  26. Chapter 20 Repulsive Force Levitation Systems
    1. 20.1 Superconducting Coil RFLS: Competitive Technologies
    2. 20.2 Sheet Secondary (Track) Normal-Flux RFLS
    3. 20.3 Normal-Flux Ladder Secondary RFLS
    4. 20.4 Null-Flux RFLS
    5. 20.5 Dynamics of RFLS
    6. 20.6 Damping RFLS Oscillations
      1. 20.6.1 Active Electric Damper
      2. 20.6.2 AED Response to Guideway Irregularities
      3. 20.6.3 PED + SSS Dampers
    7. 20.7 Repulsive Magnetic Wheel
    8. 20.8 Coil-PM Repulsive Force Levitation System
    9. 20.9 PM-PM Repulsive Force Levitation System
    10. 20.10 Summary
    11. References
  27. Chapter 21 Active Guideway MAGLEVs
    1. 21.1 Introduction
    2. 21.2 DC-Excited Iron-Core LSM MAGLEV Vehicles (Transrapid)
    3. 21.3 Supercon MAGLEVs
    4. 21.4 Iron-Core Active Guideway Urban PM-LSM MAGLEVs
    5. 21.5 Active Guideway Multimover Doubly Fed LIM MAGLEV Industrial Platforms
    6. 21.6 Summary
    7. References
  28. Chapter 22 Passive Guideway MAGLEVs
    1. 22.1 Introduction
    2. 22.2 LIM-MAGLEVs
      1. 22.2.1 Potential, Improved LIM-MAGLEV Concepts
    3. 22.3 H-LSM MAGLEV (Magnibus)
    4. 22.4 Potential Improvements on Magnibus System
    5. 22.5 Transverse-Flux PM-LSM MAGLEVs
    6. 22.6 DC-Polarized L-SRM MAGLEVs
    7. 22.7 Multiphase (True Brushless) Linear Reluctance Machine MAGLEVs
    8. 22.8 Summary
    9. References
  29. Index