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Linear Synchronous Motors, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Considered to be the first book devoted to the subject, Linear Synchronous Motors: Transportation and Automation Systems, Second Edition evaluates the state of the art, demonstrating the technological innovations that are improving the design, construction, and performance of modern control systems. This new edition not only illustrates the development of linear synchronous motor drives, but it also discusses useful techniques for selecting a motor that will meet the specific requirements of linear electrical drives.

New Features for the Second Edition:

  • Several updated and expanded sections, as well as two new chapters on FEM
  • Even more numerical examples, calculations, and mathematical models
  • Broadened target audience that includes researchers, scientists, students, and more

Evaluating trends and practical techniques for achieving optimal system performance, the authors showcase ready-to-implement solutions for common roadblocks in this process. The book presents fundamental equations and calculations used to determine and evaluate system operation, efficiency, and reliability, with an exploration of modern computer-aided design of linear synchronous motors, including the finite element approach. It covers topics such as linear sensors and stepping motors, magnetic levitation systems, elevators, and factory automation systems. It also features case studies on flat PM, tubular PM, air-cored, and hybrid linear synchronous motors, as well as 3D finite element method analysis of tubular linear reluctance motors, and linear oscillatory actuators.

With such an exceptional presentation of practical tools and conceptual illustrations, this volume is an especially powerful resource. It will benefit readers from all walks by providing numerical examples, models, guidelines, and diagrams to help develop a clear understanding of linear synchronous motor operations, characteristics, and much more.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Contents
  5. Preface to the 2nd Edition
  6. About the Authors
  7. 1 Topologies and Selection
    1. 1.1 Definitions, Geometry, and Thrust Generation
    2. 1.2 Linear Synchronous Motor Topologies
      1. 1.2.1 Permanent Magnet Motors with Active Reaction Rail
      2. 1.2.2 PM Motors with Passive Reaction Rail
      3. 1.2.3 Motors with Electromagnetic Excitation
      4. 1.2.4 Motors with Superconducting Excitation System
      5. 1.2.5 Variable Reluctance Motors
      6. 1.2.6 Stepping Motors
      7. 1.2.7 Switched Reluctance Motors
    3. 1.3 Calculation of Forces
    4. 1.4 Linear Motion
      1. 1.4.1 Speed-Time Curve
      2. 1.4.2 Thrust-Time Curve
      3. 1.4.3 Dynamics
      4. 1.4.4 Hamilton’s Principle
      5. 1.4.5 Euler–Lagrange Equation
      6. 1.4.6 Traction
    5. 1.5 Selection of Linear Motors
    6. Examples
  8. 2 Materials and Construction
    1. 2.1 Materials
    2. 2.2 Laminated Ferromagnetic Cores
      1. 2.2.1 Electrical Sheet-Steels
      2. 2.2.2 High-Saturation Ferromagnetic Alloys
      3. 2.2.3 Permalloys
      4. 2.2.4 Amorphous Materials
      5. 2.2.5 Solid Ferromagnetic Materials
      6. 2.2.6 Soft Magnetic Powder Composites
    3. 2.3 Permanent Magnets
      1. 2.3.1 Demagnetization Curve
      2. 2.3.2 Magnetic Parameters
      3. 2.3.3 Magnetic Flux Density in the Air Gap
      4. 2.3.4 Properties of Permanent Magnets
    4. 2.4 Conductors
      1. 2.4.1 Magnet Wire
      2. 2.4.2 Resistivity and Conductivity.
    5. 2.5 Insulation Materials
      1. 2.5.1 Classes of Insulation
      2. 2.5.2 Commonly Used Insulating Materials
      3. 2.5.3 Impregnation
    6. 2.6 Principles of Superconductivity
    7. 2.7 Superconducting Wires.
      1. 2.7.1 Classification of HTS Wires
      2. 2.7.2 HTS Wires Manufactured by American Superconductors
      3. 2.7.3 HTS Wires Manufactured by SuperPower
    8. 2.8 Laminated Stacks
    9. 2.9 Armature Windings of Slotted Cores
    10. 2.10 Slotless Armature Systems.
    11. 2.11 Electromagnetic Excitation Systems
    12. 2.12 Permanent Magnet Excitation Systems
    13. 2.13 Superconducting Excitation Systems
    14. 2.14 Hybrid Linear Stepping Motors
    15. Examples
  9. 3 Theory of Linear Synchronous Motors
    1. 3.1 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
      1. 3.1.1 Magnetic Field of the Armature Winding
      2. 3.1.2 Form Factors and Reaction Factors
      3. 3.1.3 Synchronous Reactance
      4. 3.1.4 Voltage Induced
      5. 3.1.5 Electromagnetic Power and Thrust
      6. 3.1.6 Minimization of d-axis Armature Current
      7. 3.1.7 Thrust Ripple
      8. 3.1.8 Magnetic Circuit
      9. 3.1.9 Direct Calculation of Thrust
    2. 3.2 Motors with Superconducting Excitation Coils
    3. 3.3 Double-Sided LSM with Inner Moving Coil
    4. 3.4 Variable Reluctance Motors
    5. 3.5 Switched Reluctance Motors
    6. Examples
  10. 4 FEM Analysis
    1. 4.1 Fundamental Equations of Electromagnetic Field
      1. 4.1.1 Magnetic Field Vector Potential
      2. 4.1.2 Electromagnetic Forces
      3. 4.1.3 Inductances
      4. 4.1.4 Magnetic Scalar Potential
      5. 4.1.5 Magnetic Energy and Coenergy
    2. 4.2 FEM Modeling
      1. 4.2.1 3D Modeling in Cartesian Coordinate System
      2. 4.2.2 2D Modeling of Axisymmetrical Problems
      3. 4.2.3 Commercial FEM Packages
    3. 4.3 Time-Stepping FEM Analysis
    4. 4.4 FEM Analysis of Three-Phase PM LSM
      1. 4.4.1 Geometry
      2. 4.4.2 Specifications of Investigated Prototypes of PM LSMs169
      3. 4.4.3 Approach to Computation
      4. 4.4.4 Discretization of LSM Area in 2D
      5. 4.4.5 2D Electromagnetic Field Analysis
      6. 4.4.6 Calculation of Integral Parameters
    5. Examples
  11. 5 Hybrid and Special Linear Permanent Magnet Motors
    1. 5.1 Permanent Magnet Hybrid Motors.
      1. 5.1.1 Finite Element Approach.
      2. 5.1.2 Reluctance Network Approach
      3. 5.1.3 Experimental Investigation
    2. 5.2 Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motors
      1. 5.2.1 Geometry
      2. 5.2.2 2D Discretization and Mesh Generation
      3. 5.2.3 2D Electromagnetic Field Analysis
      4. 5.2.4 3D Electromagnetic Field Analysis
      5. 5.2.5 Electromagnetic Thrust and Thrust Ripple
      6. 5.2.6 Experimental Verification
    3. 5.3 Tubular Linear Reluctance Motors
    4. 5.4 Linear Oscillatory Actuators
      1. 5.4.1 2D Electromagnetic Field Analysis
      2. 5.4.2 Magnetic Flux, Force, and Inductance
    5. Examples
  12. 6 Motion Control
    1. 6.1 Control of AC Motors
    2. 6.2 EMF and Thrust of PM Synchronous and Brushless Motors
      1. 6.2.1 Sine-Wave Motors
      2. 6.2.2 Square-Wave (Trapezoidal) Motors
    3. 6.3 Model of PM Motor in dq Reference Frame
    4. 6.4 Thrust and Speed Control of PM Motors
      1. 6.4.1 Open Loop Control
      2. 6.4.2 Closed Loop Control
      3. 6.4.3 Zero Direct-Axis Current Control
      4. 6.4.4 Flux-Weakening Control
      5. 6.4.5 Direct Thrust Control
      6. 6.4.6 Fuzzy Control
    5. 6.5 Control of Hybrid Stepping Motors
      1. 6.5.1 Microstepping
      2. 6.5.2 Electronic Controllers
    6. 6.6 Precision Linear Positioning
    7. Examples
  13. 7 Sensors
    1. 7.1 Linear Optical Sensors
      1. 7.1.1 Incremental Encoders
      2. 7.1.2 Absolute Encoders
      3. 7.1.3 Data Matrix Code Identification and Positioning System
    2. 7.2 Linear Magnetic Encoders
      1. 7.2.1 Construction
      2. 7.2.2 Noise Cancelation
      3. 7.2.3 Signal Interpolation Process
      4. 7.2.4 Transmission of Speed and Position Signals
      5. 7.2.5 LVDT Linear Position Sensors
    3. Examples
  14. 8 High-Speed Maglev Transport
    1. 8.1 Electromagnetic and Electrodynamic Levitation
    2. 8.2 Transrapid System (Germany)
      1. 8.2.1 Background
      2. 8.2.2 Propulsion, Support, and Guidance
      3. 8.2.3 Guideway
      4. 8.2.4 Power Supply
      5. 8.2.5 Vehicle
      6. 8.2.6 Control System of Electromagnets
      7. 8.2.7 The Future of Transrapid System
      8. 8.2.8 History of Transrapid Maglev System in Germany
    3. 8.3 Yamanashi Maglev Test Line in Japan
      1. 8.3.1 Background
      2. 8.3.2 Location of Yamanashi Maglev Test Line
      3. 8.3.3 Principle of Operation
      4. 8.3.4 Guideway
      5. 8.3.5 Vehicle
      6. 8.3.6 Superconducting Electromagnet
      7. 8.3.7 Power Conversion Substation
      8. 8.3.8 Brakes
      9. 8.3.9 Boarding System
      10. 8.3.10 Control System
      11. 8.3.11 Communication System
      12. 8.3.12 Experiments
      13. 8.3.13 History of Superconducting Maglev Transportation             Technology in Japan
    4. 8.4 American Urban Maglev
    5. 8.5 Swissmetro
      1. 8.5.1 Assumptions
      2. 8.5.2 Pilot Project
    6. 8.6 Marine Express
    7. Examples
  15. 9 Building and Factory Transportation Systems
    1. 9.1 Elevator Hoisting Machines
      1. 9.1.1 Linear-Motor-Driven Elevator Cars
      2. 9.1.2 Elevator with Linear Motor in the Pit
      3. 9.1.3 Linear Motor in Counterweight
      4. 9.1.4 Conventional versus Linear-Motor-Driven Elevator
    2. 9.2 Ropeless Elevators
      1. 9.2.1 Vertical Transport in Ultrahigh Buildings
      2. 9.2.2 Assessment of Hoist Performance
      3. 9.2.3 Construction of Ropeless Elevators
      4. 9.2.4 Operation
      5. 9.2.5 First Prototypes
      6. 9.2.6 Brakes
    3. 9.3 Horizontal Transportation Systems
      1. 9.3.1 Guidelines for Installation
      2. 9.3.2 Construction
      3. 9.3.3 Applications
    4. Examples
  16. 10 Industrial Automation Systems
    1. 10.1 Automation of Manufacturing Processes
    2. 10.2 Ball Lead Screws
      1. 10.2.1 Basic Parameters
      2. 10.2.2 Ball Lead Screw Drives
      3. 10.2.3 Replacement of Ball Screws with LSMs
    3. 10.3 Linear Positioning Stages
    4. 10.4 Gantry Robots
    5. 10.5 Material Handling
      1. 10.5.1 Monorail Material Handling System
      2. 10.5.2 Semiconductor Wafer Transport
      3. 10.5.3 Capsule-Filling Machine
    6. 10.6 Machining Processes
      1. 10.6.1 Machining Centers
      2. 10.6.2 Aircraft Machining
    7. 10.7 Welding and Thermal Cutting
      1. 10.7.1 Friction Welding
      2. 10.7.2 Welding Robots
      3. 10.7.3 Thermal Cutting
    8. 10.8 Surface Treatment and Finishing
      1. 10.8.1 Electrocoating
      2. 10.8.2 Laser Scribing Systems
      3. 10.8.3 Application of Flux-Switching PM Linear Motors
    9. 10.9 2D Orientation of Plastic Films
    10. 10.10 Testing
      1. 10.10.1 Surface Roughness Measurement
      2. 10.10.2 Generator of Vibration
    11. 10.11 Industrial Laser Applications
    12. Examples
  17. Appendix A Magnetic Circuits with Permanent Magnets
    1. A.1 Approximation of Demagnetization Curve and Recoil Line
    2. A.2 Operating Diagram
      1. A.2.1 Construction of the Operating Diagram
      2. A.2.2 Magnetization without Armature
      3. A.2.3 Magnetization with Armature
      4. A.2.4 Equivalent Magnetic Circuit
  18. Appendix B Calculations of Permeances
    1. B.1 Field Plotting
    2. B.2 Dividing the Magnetic Field into Simple Solids
    3. B.3 Prisms and Cylinders Located in an Open Space
  19. Appendix C Performance Calculations for PM LSMs
  20. Appendix D Field-Network Simulation of Dynamic Characteristics of PM LSMs
  21. Symbols and Abbreviations
  22. References
  23. Patents
  24. Index