Manufacturing processes can be classified as follows :
Casting, foundry or molding processes
Forming or metalworking processes
Machining (material removal) processes
Joining (fastening, welding, fitting, bonding) and assembly
Surface treatments and finishing (cleaning, tumbling, scribing, polishing, coating, plating)
Other, e.g., inspection, testing, packaging, storing, etc.
Manufacturing process automation frees the human operator from control functions, i.e., from the need to perform certain actions in a particular sequence to carry out an operation in accord with preset machining conditions.
Automation is the use of the energy of a nonliving system ...