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The bare installation process we just discussed is suitable for testing. OwnCloud and NextCloud will use HTTPS sessions if HTTPS support is available. Enabling HTTPS support requires an X.509 security certificate.

You can purchase a security certificate from one of the dozens of commercial providers, self-sign a certificate for your own use, or create a free certificate with Let's Encrypt (

A self-signed certificate is adequate for testing, but most browsers and phone apps will flag this as an untrusted site. Let's Encrypt is a service of the Internet Security Research Group (ISRG). The certificates they generate are fully registered and all applications can accept them.

The first step in acquiring ...

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