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Location-based Services Fundamentals and Operation

Book Description

Location-based Services (LBSs) are mobile services for providing information that has been created, compiled, selected or filtered under consideration of the users' current locations or those of other persons or mobile devices. Typical examples are restaurant finders, buddy trackers, navigation services or applications in the areas of mobile marketing and mobile gaming. The attractiveness of LBSs is due to the fact that users are not required to enter location information manually but are automatically pinpointed and tracked.

This book explains the fundamentals and operation of LBSs and gives a thorough introduction to the key technologies and organizational procedures, offering comprehensive coverage of positioning methods, location protocols and service platforms, alongside an overview of interfaces, languages, APIs and middleware with examples demonstrating their usage.

  • Explanation and comparison of all protocols and architectures for location services

  • In-depth coverage of satellite, cellular and local positioning

  • All embracing introduction to 3GPP positioning methods, such as Cell-Id, E-OTD, U-TdoA, OTDoA-IPDL and Assisted GPS

  • Explains the operation of enhanced emergency services such as E-911

  • Identifies unsolved research issues and challenges in the area of LBSs

This comprehensive guide will be invaluable to undergraduate and postgraduate students and lecturers in the area of telecommunications. It will also be a useful resource to developers and researchers seeking to expand their knowledge in this field.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Preface
  3. List of Abbreviations
  4. 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1. What are Location-based Services?
    2. 1.2. Application Scenarios
      1. 1.2.1. Business Initiatives
        1. 1.2.1.1. Enquiry and Information Services
        2. 1.2.1.2. Community Services
        3. 1.2.1.3. Traffic Telematics
        4. 1.2.1.4. Fleet Management and Logistics
        5. 1.2.1.5. Mobile Marketing
        6. 1.2.1.6. Mobile Gaming
        7. 1.2.1.7. Value-added Services
      2. 1.2.2. Public Initiatives
        1. 1.2.2.1. Enhanced Emergency Services
        2. 1.2.2.2. Toll Systems
    3. 1.3. LBS Actors
    4. 1.4. Standardization
    5. 1.5. Structure of this Book
  5. I. Fundamentals
    1. 2. What is Location?
      1. 2.1. Location Categories
      2. 2.2. Spatial Location
        1. 2.2.1. Coordinate Systems
          1. 2.2.1.1. Cartesian Coordinate Systems
          2. 2.2.1.2. Ellipsoidal Coordinate Systems
        2. 2.2.2. Datums
          1. 2.2.2.1. Horizontal Datums
          2. 2.2.2.2. Vertical Datums
        3. 2.2.3. Map Projections
          1. 2.2.3.1. Mercator Projections
          2. 2.2.3.2. Universal Transverse Mercator
      3. 2.3. Conclusion
    2. 3. Spatial Databases and GIS
      1. 3.1. What are Spatial Databases and GIS?
      2. 3.2. Geographic versus Spatial Data Models
      3. 3.3. Representing Spatial Objects
        1. 3.3.1. Raster Mode
        2. 3.3.2. Vector Mode
        3. 3.3.3. Representing Topological Relationships
        4. 3.3.4. Database Approaches for Spatial Objects
      4. 3.4. Features and Themes
        1. 3.4.1. Conceptual Schemes
        2. 3.4.2. Operations
        3. 3.4.3. Topological Predicates
        4. 3.4.4. Queries
      5. 3.5. Algorithms of Computational Geometry
      6. 3.6. Geography Markup Language
      7. 3.7. Conclusion
    3. 4. Basics of Wireless Communications
      1. 4.1. Signals
        1. 4.1.1. Modulation
        2. 4.1.2. Representing Signals in the Frequency Domain
        3. 4.1.3. Signal Spectrum and Bandwidth
      2. 4.2. Propagation of Radio Signals
        1. 4.2.1. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
        2. 4.2.2. Antennas
        3. 4.2.3. Speed of Electromagnetic Waves
        4. 4.2.4. Attenuation
        5. 4.2.5. Multipath Propagation
        6. 4.2.6. Doppler Effect
      3. 4.3. Multiplexing and Multiple Access
        1. 4.3.1. SDM and SDMA
        2. 4.3.2. FDM and FDMA
        3. 4.3.3. TDM and TDMA
        4. 4.3.4. CDM and CDMA
      4. 4.4. Conclusion
    4. 5. Cellular Networks and Location Management
      1. 5.1. Overview of Cellular Systems
      2. 5.2. Principles of Cellular Networks
        1. 5.2.1. GSM Architecture
        2. 5.2.2. GPRS Architecture
        3. 5.2.3. UMTS Architecture
      3. 5.3. Mobility Management
      4. 5.4. Common Concepts of Location Management
        1. 5.4.1. Location Update and Paging
        2. 5.4.2. Database Concepts
      5. 5.5. Location Management in CS Networks
        1. 5.5.1. Identifiers and Addresses
        2. 5.5.2. Localization and Routing
        3. 5.5.3. Location Updates
      6. 5.6. Location Management in PS Networks
        1. 5.6.1. Localization and Routing
        2. 5.6.2. Characteristics of CS and PS Traffic
        3. 5.6.3. Location Updates
          1. 5.6.3.1. Location Updates in GPRS
          2. 5.6.3.2. Location Updates in the UMTS PS Domain
      7. 5.7. Conclusion
  6. II. Positioning
    1. 6. Fundamentals of Positioning
      1. 6.1. Classification of Positioning Infrastructures
        1. 6.1.1. Integrated and Stand-alone Infrastructures
        2. 6.1.2. Network and Terminal-based Positioning
        3. 6.1.3. Satellites, Cellular, and Indoor Infrastructures
          1. 6.1.3.1. Satellite Infrastructures
          2. 6.1.3.2. Cellular Infrastructures
          3. 6.1.3.3. Indoor Infrastructures
      2. 6.2. Basic Positioning Methods
        1. 6.2.1. Proximity Sensing
        2. 6.2.2. Lateration
          1. 6.2.2.1. Circular Lateration
          2. 6.2.2.2. Hyperbolic Lateration
        3. 6.2.3. Angulation
        4. 6.2.4. Dead Reckoning
        5. 6.2.5. Pattern Matching
        6. 6.2.6. Hybrid Approaches
      3. 6.3. Range Measurements
        1. 6.3.1. Time Measurements
          1. 6.3.1.1. Measurement Methods
          2. 6.3.1.2. Clocks
        2. 6.3.2. Received Signal Strength
      4. 6.4. Accuracy and Precision
      5. 6.5. Error Sources
      6. 6.6. Conclusion
    2. 7. Satellite Positioning
      1. 7.1. Historical Background
      2. 7.2. Orbital Motion of Satellite Systems
        1. 7.2.1. Satellite Orbits
        2. 7.2.2. Keplerian Elements
      3. 7.3. Global Positioning System
        1. 7.3.1. GPS Segments
        2. 7.3.2. Satellite Constellation
        3. 7.3.3. Pilot Signals and Spreading Codes
        4. 7.3.4. Navigation Message
        5. 7.3.5. GPS Services
        6. 7.3.6. GPS Positioning
        7. 7.3.7. GPS Error Budget
      4. 7.4. Differential GPS
      5. 7.5. Galileo
      6. 7.6. Conclusion
    3. 8. Cellular Positioning
      1. 8.1. Positioning in GSM Networks
        1. 8.1.1. GSM Air Interface
          1. 8.1.1.1. Multiple Access and Modulation
          2. 8.1.1.2. Guard Times and Timing Advance
          3. 8.1.1.3. Physical and Logical Channels
        2. 8.1.2. GSM Positioning Components
        3. 8.1.3. Cell-Id Combined with Timing Advance
        4. 8.1.4. E-OTD
          1. 8.1.4.1. Basics of E-OTD
          2. 8.1.4.2. RIT Measurements
          3. 8.1.4.3. OTD Measurements
          4. 8.1.4.4. Overview of E-OTD Control Flow
        5. 8.1.5. U-TDoA
      2. 8.2. Positioning in UMTS Networks
        1. 8.2.1. UMTS Air Interfaces
          1. 8.2.1.1. Multiple Access and Modulation
          2. 8.2.1.2. Active Sets, Near–far Effect, and Hearability
          3. 8.2.1.3. Physical, Transport, and Logical Channels
        2. 8.2.2. UMTS Positioning Components
        3. 8.2.3. Cell-based Methods
        4. 8.2.4. OTDoA-IPDL
        5. 8.2.5. RIT Measurements in UMTS
          1. 8.2.5.1. OTD Measurements in UMTS
      3. 8.3. Assisted GPS in GSM and UMTS
      4. 8.4. Positioning in other Cellular Systems
      5. 8.5. Conclusion
    4. 9. Indoor Positioning
      1. 9.1. WLAN Positioning
        1. 9.1.1. Principles of WLAN Positioning
        2. 9.1.2. WLAN Fingerprinting
      2. 9.2. RFID Positioning
      3. 9.3. Indoor Positioning with GPS
      4. 9.4. Non Radiolocation Systems
        1. 9.4.1. Infrared-based Systems
        2. 9.4.2. Ultrasound-based Systems
      5. 9.5. Conclusion
  7. III. LBS Operation
    1. 10. Interorganizational LBS Operation
      1. 10.1. LBS Supply Chain
      2. 10.2. Scenarios of the LBS Supply Chain
      3. 10.3. Supplier/Consumer Patterns for Location Dissemination
        1. 10.3.1. Querying
        2. 10.3.2. Reporting
        3. 10.3.3. Evaluation of Querying and Reporting
      4. 10.4. Privacy Protection
        1. 10.4.1. Characteristics of Privacy Protection for LBSs
        2. 10.4.2. Definition of Privacy
        3. 10.4.3. Concepts and Mechanisms for Privacy Protection
          1. 10.4.3.1. Secure Communications
          2. 10.4.3.2. Privacy Policies
          3. 10.4.3.3. Anonymization
      5. 10.5. Conclusion
    2. 11. Architectures and Protocols for Location Services
      1. 11.1. GSM and UMTS Location Services
        1. 11.1.1. LCS Network Architecture
        2. 11.1.2. LCS Functional Entities
        3. 11.1.3. Location Procedures
          1. 11.1.3.1. Mobile Terminating Location Request
          2. 11.1.3.2. Mobile Originating Location Request
        4. 11.1.4. Privacy Options
        5. 11.1.5. Outlook to Future Releases
      2. 11.2. Enhanced Emergency Services
        1. 11.2.1. Wired Enhanced Emergency Services
        2. 11.2.2. Wireless Enhanced Emergency Services
          1. 11.2.2.1. Phase I
          2. 11.2.2.2. Phase II
      3. 11.3. Mobile Location Protocol
        1. 11.3.1. MLP Structure and Location Service
        2. 11.3.2. Example
        3. 11.3.3. Outlook to Future Releases
      4. 11.4. WAP Location Framework
        1. 11.4.1. WAP Overview
        2. 11.4.2. WAP Location Services
      5. 11.5. Parlay/OSA
      6. 11.6. Geopriv
        1. 11.6.1. Geopriv Entities
        2. 11.6.2. Location Objects
        3. 11.6.3. Geopriv Outlook
      7. 11.7. Conclusion
    3. 12. LBS Middleware
      1. 12.1. Conceptual View of an LBS Middleware
      2. 12.2. Location API for J2ME
        1. 12.2.1. Overview of J2ME
        2. 12.2.2. Location API for J2ME
      3. 12.3. OpenGIS Location Services
        1. 12.3.1. Information Model
        2. 12.3.2. Core Services
          1. 12.3.2.1. Directory Service
          2. 12.3.2.2. Gateway Service
          3. 12.3.2.3. Location Utility Service
          4. 12.3.2.4. Presentation Service
          5. 12.3.2.5. Route Service
      4. 12.4. Conclusion
    4. 13. LBS – The Next Generation
  8. Bibliography