The ubiquity of mobile devices (such as cell phones and personal digital assistants [PDAs]) has led to the introduction of location-based services (LBS), or location-aware services. A system can be called a LBS when the position of a mobile device—and therefore the position of the user—is somehow part of an information system (Gartner 2007). LBS aim at providing information and services relevant to the current location and context of a mobile user.
In this chapter, we will focus on one of the most important LBS applications—mobile navigation services, which provide wayfinding guidance in an unfamiliar environment. In our daily life, we may encounter ...