Location Systems

Book description


Advances in electronic location technology and the coming of age of mobile computing have opened the door for location-aware applications to permeate all aspects of everyday life. Location is at the core of a large number of high-value applications ranging from the life-and-death context of emergency response to serendipitous social meet-ups. For example, the market for GPS products and services alone is expected to grow to US$200 billion by 2015.

Unfortunately, there is no single location technology that is good for every situation and exhibits high accuracy, low cost, and universal coverage. In fact, high accuracy and good coverage seldom coexist, and when they do, it comes at an extreme cost. Instead, the modern localization landscape is a kaleidoscope of location systems based on a multitude of different technologies including satellite, mobile telephony, 802.11, ultrasound, and infrared among others.

This lecture introduces researchers and developers to the most popular technologies and systems for location estimation and the challenges and opportunities that accompany their use. For each technology, we discuss the history of its development, the various systems that are based on it, and their trade-offs and their effects on cost and performance. We also describe technology-independent algorithms that are commonly used to smooth streams of location estimates and improve the accuracy of object tracking. Finally, we provide an overview of the wide variety of application domains where location plays a key role, and discuss opportunities and new technologies on the horizon.

Table of Contents: Introduction / The Global Positioning System / Infrared and Ultrasonic Systems / Location Esimation with 802.11 / Cellular-Based Systems / Other Approaches / Improving Localization Accuracy / Location-Based Applications and Services / Challenges and Opportunities / References

Table of contents

  1. Location Systems
    1. Synthesis Lectures on Mobile and Pervasive Computing
    2. ABSTRACT
    3. Contents
    4. Chapter 1 - Introduction
      1. 1.1 LECTURE OVERVIEW
    5. Chapter 2 - The Global Positioning System
      1. 2.1 GPS ORIGINS
      2. 2.2 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
        1. 2.2.1 Earth-Orbiting Satellites
        2. 2.2.2 Ground Stations
        3. 2.2.3 GPS Receivers
      3. 2.3 BASIC GPS-POSITIONING ALGORITHM
        1. 2.3.1 Satellite Range Estimation
        2. 2.3.2 Satellite Coordinate Estimation
      4. 2.4 GPS ERRORS AND BIASES
        1. 2.4.1 Ranging Errors
        2. 2.4.2 Satellite Geometry Errors
      5. 2.5 DIFFERENTIAL GPS
        1. 2.5.1 Real-Time Differential GPS
        2. 2.5.2 Real-Time Kinematic
      6. 2.6 FUTURE GPS ENHANCEMENTS
      7. 2.7 OTHER GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS
      8. 2.8 SUMMARY
    6. Chapter 3 - Infrared and Ultrasonic Systems
      1. 3.1 ROOM-LEVEL LOCALIZATION VIA PROXIMITY
      2. 3.2 SUBROOM ACCURACY WITH ULTRASONIC TIME OF FLIGHT
      3. 3.3 ABSOLUTE LOCATION WITH TIME OF FLIGHT AND ANGLE OF ARRIVAL
      4. 3.4 COMPARISON OF APPROACHES
    7. Chapter 4 - Location Estimation With 802.11
      1. 4.1 SIGNAL STRENGTH FINGERPRINTING
      2. 4.2 SIGNAL STRENGTH MODELING
        1. 4.2.1 Constructing the AP Database
      3. 4.3 Privacy considerations
      4. 4.4 IMPROVEMENTS AND VARIANTS
    8. Chapter 5 - Cellular-Based Systems
      1. 5.1 CELL ID-BASED
      2. 5.2 RADIO MODELING APPROACHES
      3. 5.3 ASSISTED GPS
      4. 5.4 SIGNAL Strength FINGERPRINTING
      5. 5.5 STANDARDIZATION EFFORTS AND DISCUSSION
    9. Chapter 6 - Other Approaches
      1. 6.1 INSTRUMENTED SURFACES
      2. 6.2 VISION
        1. 6.2.1 Mobile Cameras
        2. 6.2.2 Fixed Cameras
        3. 6.2.3 Visual Tags
        4. 6.2.4 Practical Considerations
      3. 6.3 LASER RANGE FINDERS
      4. 6.4 AUDIBLE SOUND
      5. 6.5 INTERNET PROTOCOL MEASUREMENT
      6. 6.6 MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH
      7. 6.7 RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION TAGS
      8. 6.8 RADIO FROM FM TO ULTRAWIDE BAND
      9. 6.9 OTHERS STILL TO COME
    10. Chapter 7 - Improving Localization Accuracy
      1. 7.1 SMOOTHING
      2. 7.2 SNAPPING
      3. 7.3 FUSING AND TRACKING (1/2)
      4. 7.3 FUSING AND TRACKING (2/2)
        1. 7.3.1 Sensor Fusion
        2. 7.3.2 Tracking Ability
        3. 7.3.3 Tolerance to Noise
        4. 7.3.4 Kalman Filters
        5. 7.3.5 Particle Filters
      5. 7.4 SUMMARY
    11. Chapter 8 - Location-Based Applications and Services
      1. 8.1 NAVIGATION AND WAY-FINDING
      2. 8.2 ASSET TRACKING
      3. 8.3 EMERGENCY RESPONSE
      4. 8.4 GEOFENCING
      5. 8.5 LOCATION-BASED CONTENT AND SEARCH
      6. 8.6 SOCIAL NETWORKING
      7. 8.7 HEALTH AND WELLNESS
      8. 8.8 GAMING AND ENTERTAINMENT
      9. 8.9 CHALLENGES
    12. Chapter 9 - Challenges and Opportunities
      1. 9.1 PRIVACY
      2. 9.2 “PLACE” TECHNOLOGIES
      3. 9.3 SYSTEM SUPPORT FOR LOCATION
      4. 9.4 TECHNOLOGIES ON THE HORIZON
      5. 9.5 CONCLUSIONS
    13. References (1/3)
    14. References (2/3)
    15. References (3/3)
    16. Author Biography

Product information

  • Title: Location Systems
  • Author(s): Anthony LaMarca, Eyal de Lara
  • Release date: July 2008
  • Publisher(s): Morgan & Claypool Publishers
  • ISBN: 9781598295825