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Lossless Information Hiding in Images by Shi-Ze Guo, Zhe-Ming Lu

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2.3. Difference Expansion–Based Schemes

2.3.1. Tian's Scheme

The DE technique for reversible data hiding was first proposed by Tian and Tiara [9,10]. It is a high-capacity approach based on expanding the pixel difference value between neighboring pixels. His method allows one bit to be embedded in every pair of pixels. Given a pair of 256-grayscale image pixel values (x, y), 0  x, y  255, their integer average c and difference d are computed as

c=x+y2,d=xy

image (2.3)

where zimage denotes the floor function that seeks the greatest integer less than or equal ...

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