Low-Visibility Printed Antennas
3.1 Microstrip Antennas
Microstrip antennas possess attractive features such as low profile, flexible, light weight, small volume, and low production cost. Microstrip antennas have been widely presented in books and papers in the last decade [1–18]. Microstrip antennas may be employed in communication links, seekers, and in biomedical systems.
3.1.1 Introduction to Microstrip Antennas
Microstrip antennas are printed on a dielectric substrate with low dielectric losses. A cross section of the microstrip antenna is shown in Figure 3.1. Microstrip antennas are thin patches etched on a dielectric substrate εr. The substrate thickness, H, is less than 0.1 λ.