#### The mode bits

The special, user, group, and other permissions can be represented in a string of 12 binary bits, as shown in Figure 7-2.

It is common to refer to these bits in four sets of three, translated into four octal (base-8) digits. The first octal digit represents the special permissions SUID, SGID, and sticky. The other three represent the read, write, and execute permissions, respectively, in each of the user, group, and other user classes. Octal notation is used as shorthand for binary strings such as the access mode, and each group of three bits has 23 = 8 possible values, listed in Table 7-3.

The read permission by itself is `r--`, which can be thought of as binary 100, or octal 4. Adding the write permission yields `rw-`, or binary 110, which is octal 6. Figure 7-2 shows how to total bit values into the octal equivalents. Memorizing, or even writing, the binary-to-octal equivalents may be easier on the exam than adding bit values. Use the technique that works best for you.

Table 7-3. Octal numbers
 Octal value Binary equivalent 0 000 1 001 2 010 3 011 4 100 5 101 6 110 7 111

To turn the mode bits `110111101001` into an octal representation, first separate them into chunks of three bits: `110, 111, 101`, and `001`. The first group, representing the special permissions, is `110`. This can be thought of as 4 + 2 + 0 = 6. The second group, representing ...

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