Review Questions

  1. Describe the difference between shell variables and environment variables.

  2. Compare and contrast built-in and explicitly defined commands and those found in $PATH.

  3. After a lengthy session of file manipulation on the command line, what will !ls produce?

  4. What files does bash read when you log in?

  5. Explain the notion of pipes as they refer to shell capabilities, and illustrate using an example of two or more filter programs.

  6. Explain the -p option to cp and give an example of why it is necessary.

  7. Give two examples of files matched by the wildcard ??[!1-5].

  8. Name the three standard I/O streams and their functions.

  9. Give an example of the redirection operator, >, and describe how the outcome would be different using the >> operator.

  10. What process is the parent of all system processes? Give both the PID and the program name.

  11. Name three common utilities used for process monitoring.

  12. What happens to a typical daemon when it receives SIGHUP? How would the behavior be different if it received SIGKILL?

  13. Compare and contrast background and foreground jobs, and state the syntax to put a command in the background on the command line.

  14. What two classifications of characters make up regular expressions?

  15. How are the regular expressions [A-Z]* and ^[A-Z]*$ different?

  16. What is the difference between executing :q versus :q! in vi?

  17. What does it mean to put vi into command mode?

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