Standard I/O

  • The shell provides the standard I/O capability, offering three default file descriptors to running programs:

    • Standard input (STDIN) is a text input stream, by default attached to the keyboard.

    • Standard output (STDOUT) is an output stream for normal program output. By default, this is the screen.

    • Standard error (STDERR) is an output stream meant for error messages. By default, this is the screen.

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