Protocols

TCP/IP is a suite of Internet protocols, including the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), Internet Protocol (IP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), among others. Some protocols use handshaking (the exchange of control information among communicating systems) to establish and maintain a connection. Such a protocol is said to be connection-oriented and reliable, because the protocol itself is responsible for handling transmission errors, lost packets, and packet arrival order. A protocol that does not exchange control information is said to be connectionless and unreliable. In this context, “unreliable” simply means that the protocol doesn’t handle transmission problems itself; they must be corrected in the application or system libraries. Connectionless protocols are simpler and have fewer overheads than connection-oriented protocols. TCP/IP is a stack of protocols because protocols are built in a hierarchy of layers. Low-level protocols are used by higher-level protocols on adjacent layers of the protocol stack:

TCP

TCP is a connection-oriented transport agent used by applications to establish a network connection. TCP transports information across networks by handshaking and retransmitting information as needed in response to errors on the network. TCP guarantees packet arrival and provides for the correct ordering of received packets. TCP is used by many network services, including FTP, Telnet, and SMTP. By using TCP, these applications ...

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