Chapter 10

Ray-Tracing Modeling

Yves Lostanlen1 and Thomas Kürner2

1 University of Toronto, Canada

2 Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany

10.1 Introduction

Born in computer graphics, ray tracing algorithms have been elaborated to generate an image by computing and tracing the light trajectories through pixels in a 2D image and simulating the effects of its interactions with digitized objects. The technique produces very realistic scenes but at a greater computational cost. This makes ray tracing best suited for applications where the image can be rendered slowly ahead of time, such as in still images and film and television special effects, and more poorly suited for real-time applications like video games where speed is critical. Ray tracing methods can simulate a wide variety of interactions, such as reflection and refraction (transmission), and diffraction phenomena. Those ray-based techniques have been adapted at lower frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum and are valid in the far-field region of the transmitters. Indeed it is crucial to predict accurately the radio-wave propagation when designing a wireless system. Indeed the propagation is the first limiting factor for most wireless equipment and networks. Modeling reliably the radio-wave behavior in complex environments (urban and indoor) provides a key asset to understand better the wireless characteristics and impairment and to get optimal performance. Deterministic modeling tools are useful to study the ...

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