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Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, 4th Edition by A. Kayode Coker, PhD

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4 FLUID FLOW

4.1 INTRODUCTION

Transportation of fluids is important in the design of chemical process plants. In the chemical process industries (CPI), pipework and its accessories such as fitting make up 20–30% of the total design costs and 10–20% of the total plant investment. Maintenance requirements and energy usage in the form of pressure drop (ΔP) in the fluids being pumped add to the cost. Also, these items escalate each year in line with inflation. As a result, sound pipe-sizing practices can have a substantial influence on overall plant economics. It is the designer’s responsibility to optimize the pressure drops in piping and equipment and to assess the most economic conditions of operations. Figure 4-1 illustrates piping layouts ...

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