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Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, 4th Edition by A. Kayode Coker, PhD

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9.48 NON-REFRIGERATED ABOVE GROUND TANKS; API-STD-2000

Normal operations are to be established within the design parameters for the tank, thereby avoiding conditions that would damage it. Normal venting capacity should be at least the sum of venting required for oil/fluids movement and thermal effect. Required capacity can be reduced when liquid volatility is such that vapor generation or condensation in the allowable operating range of vessel pressure will provide all or part of the venting requirements.

Outbreathing conditions are usually established when (a) the tank is being filled and the vapor space is being displaced with liquid, (b) thermal expansion and evaporation of the liquid, and (c) external fire on the vessel creating additional ...

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