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Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, 4th Edition

Book Description

The fourth edition of Ludwig’s Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume Three is a core reference for chemical, plant, and process engineers and provides an unrivalled reference on methods, process fundamentals, and supporting design data. New to this edition are expanded chapters on heat transfer plus additional chapters focused on the design of shell and tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers and air coolers. Heat tracer requirements for pipelines and heat loss from insulated pipelines are covered in this new edition, along with batch heating and cooling of process fluids, process integration, and industrial reactors. The book also looks at the troubleshooting of process equipment and corrosion and metallurgy.

  • Assists engineers in rapidly analyzing problems and finding effective design methods and mechanical specifications
  • Definitive guide to the selection and design of various equipment types, including heat exchanger sizing and compressor sizing, with established design codes
  • Batch heating and cooling of process fluids supported by Excel programs

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface to the Fourth Edition
  8. Biography
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. Chapter 15. Heat Transfer
    1. Types of Heat Transfer Equipment Terminology
    2. Details of Exchange Equipment
    3. Tube Vibration
    4. Nozzle Connections to Shell and Heads
    5. Types of Heat Exchange Operations
    6. Temperature Difference: Two Fluid Transfer
    7. Temperature for Fluid Properties Evaluation – Caloric Temperature
    8. Pressure Drop, Δp
    9. Heat Balance
    10. Transfer Area
    11. Fouling of Tube Surface
    12. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Plain or Bare Tubes
    13. Approximate Values for Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients
    14. Film Coefficients with Fluids Outside Tubes Forced Convection
    15. Design and Rating of Heat Exchangers
    16. Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers
    17. Spiral Heat Exchangers
    18. Miscellaneous Special Application Heat Transfer Equipment
    19. Heat Loss for Bare Process Pipe
    20. Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
    21. Rating Method for Air-Cooled Exchangers
    22. Two-Phase Flow Patterns
    23. Modes of Condensation
    24. Boiling and Vaporization
    25. Heat Transfer in Jacketed, Agitated Vessels/Kettles
    26. Falling Film Liquid Flow in Tubes
    27. Batch Heating and Cooling of Fluids
    28. Heat Exchanger Design With Computers
    29. Maintenance of Heat Exchangers
    30. General Symptoms in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
    31. Case Studies of Heat Exchangers Explosion Hazards Incidents
  11. Chapter 16. Process Integration and Heat Exchanger Networks
    1. Introduction
    2. Heat Recovery Problem Identification
    3. Energy Targets
    4. The Heat Recovery Pinch and Its Significance
    5. A Targeting Procedure: The Problem Table Algorithm
    6. The Grand Composite Curve
    7. Placing Utilities Using the Grand Composite Curve
    8. Stream Matching at the Pinch
    9. The Pinch Design Approach to Inventing a Network
    10. Heat Exchanger Network Design (HEN)
    11. Design for Threshold Problems
    12. Heat Exchanger Area Targets
    13. HEN Simplification
    14. Number of Shells Target
    15. Implications for HEN Design
    16. Capital Cost Targets
    17. Energy Targeting
    18. Supertargeting or ΔTmin Optimization
    19. Summary: New Heat Exchanger Network Design
    20. Targeting and Design for Constrained Matches
    21. Targeting by Linear Programming
    22. Heat Engines and Heat Pumps for Optimum Integration
    23. Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer In Process Integration
    24. Total Site Analysis
    25. Applications of Process Integration
    26. Pitfalls in Process Integration
    27. Conclusions
    28. Industrial Applications, Case Studies and Examples
    29. Glossary of Terms
    30. Summary and Heuristics
    31. Nomenclature
  12. Chapter 17. Refrigeration Systems
    1. Capacity of Refrigerator
    2. The Carnot Refrigeration Cycle
    3. Performance of a Carnot Refrigerator
    4. Mechanical Refrigeration
    5. Types of Refrigeration Systems
    6. Terminology
    7. Selection of a Refrigeration System for a Given Temperature Level and Heat Load
    8. System Pressure Drop
    9. Absorption Refrigeration
    10. Mechanical Refrigeration
    11. Process Performance
    12. System Performance Comparison
    13. Hydrocarbon Refrigerants
    14. Refrigeration Stages
    15. Hydrocarbon Mixtures and Refrigerants
    16. Generalized Comments Regarding Refrigerants
    17. System Design and Selection
    18. Receiver
    19. Economizers
    20. Suction Gas Superheat
    21. Cascade Systems
    22. Compound Compression System
    23. Comparison of Effect of System Cycle and Expansion Valves on Required Horsepower
    24. Cryogenics
    25. Simulation of a Propane Refrigeration Loop
    26. Using Hysys Simulation Software Package
    27. Glossary of Terms
    28. Nomenclature
  13. Chapter 18. Compression Equipment (Including Fans)
    1. General Application Guide
    2. Specification Guides
    3. General Considerations for Any Type of Compressor Flow Conditions
    4. Reciprocating Compression
    5. Compressor Performance Characteristics
    6. Solution of Compression Problems Using Mollier Diagrams
    7. Cylinder Unloading
    8. Air Compressor Selection
    9. Energy Flow
    10. Constant-T System
    11. Polytropic System
    12. Constant S System
    13. Centrifugal Compressors
    14. Compressor Equations in SI Units
    15. Multicomponent Gas Streams
    16. Treatment of Compressor Fluids
    17. Centrifugal Compressor Performance in Process System
    18. Expansion Turbines
    19. Axial Compressor
    20. Liquid Ring Compressors
    21. Rotary Two-Impeller (Lobe) Blowers and Vacuum Pumps
    22. Rotary Axial Screw Blower and Vacuum Pumps
    23. Rotary Sliding Vane Compressor
    24. Oil-Flooded Screw Compressors
    25. Integrally Geared Compressors
    26. Other Process-Related Compressors
    27. Advances in Compressor Technology
    28. Troubleshooting of Centrifugal and Reciprocating Compressors
    29. Fans
    30. Blowers and Exhausters
    31. Nomenclature
    32. Greek Symbols
    33. Subscripts
  14. Chapter 19. Reciprocating Compression Surge Drums
    1. Pulsation Dampener or Surge Drum
    2. Common Design Terminology
    3. Applications
    4. Internal Details
    5. Design Method – Surge Drums (Nonacoustic)
    6. Single-Compression Cylinder
    7. Parallel Multicylinder Arrangement Using Common Surge Drum
    8. Pipe Sizes for Surge Drum Systems
    9. Frequency of Pulsations
    10. Compressor Suction and Discharge Drums
    11. Design Method – Modified NACA Method for the Design of Suction and Discharge Drums
    12. Pipe Resonance
    13. Mechanical Considerations: Drums/Bottles and Piping
    14. Nomenclature
    15. Greek
    16. Subscripts
  15. Chapter 20. Mechanical Drivers
    1. Electric Motors
    2. Mechanical Drive Steam Turbines
    3. Gas and Gas-Diesel Engines
    4. Combustion Gas Turbine
    5. Nomenclature
  16. Chapter 21. Industrial and Laboratory Reactors – Chemical Reaction Hazards and Process Integration of Reactors
    1. Introduction
    2. Batch Isothermal Perfectly Stirred Reactor
    3. Semi-batch Reactors
    4. Continuous Flow Isothermal Perfectly Stirred Tank Reactor
    5. Continuous Isothermal Plug Flow (Tubular) Reactor
    6. Continuous Multiphase Reactors
    7. Fluidized Bed System
    8. Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Unit
    9. Deep Catalytic Cracking Unit
    10. Bubble Column Reactor
    11. Agitator Types for Different Reaction Systems
    12. Catalysts and Catalytic Processes
    13. Determining Laboratory Reactors
    14. Recirculating Reactors
    15. Guidelines for Selecting Batch Processes
    16. Heat Transfer in Reactors
    17. Chemical Reaction Hazardous Incidents
    18. Chemical Reactivity Worksheet (CRW)
    19. Protective Measures for Runaway Reactions
    20. Safety in Emergency Relief Systems
    21. Process Hazard Analysis (PHA)
    22. Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)
    23. Hazard Analysis (HAZAN)
    24. Fault Tree Analysis
    25. Key Findings by US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB)
    26. Reactive System Screening Tool (RSST)
    27. Energy Balances on Batch Reactors
    28. The ϕ Factor Accounting for the Heat Capacities of the Bomb Calorimeter
    29. Adiabatic Operation of a Batch Reactor
    30. Relief Valve Sizing Calculations
    31. Vent Sizing Equations
    32. Discharge System
    33. Hazardous Pyrophoric Reaction
    34. Heat-Integrated Reactors
    35. Appropriate Placement of Reactors
    36. Reactor Design to Improve Heat Integration
    37. Glossary
  17. Chapter 22. Metallurgy – Corrosion
    1. Introduction
    2. Material Selection
    3. Embrittlement
    4. Environmental Cracking
    5. Creep and Creep Rupture Life
    6. Martensitic Stainless Steels in Refining and Petroleum Production
    7. Corrosion
  18. Index