Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Unit

The FCC process (Figures 21-12A and B) is one of the most important conversion processes employed in petroleum refineries, as it converts straight-run atmospheric gas oil, vacuum gas oils and heavy stocks recovered from other operations into high-octane gasoline, light fuel oils, slurry oil and olefin-rich light gases. The feedstock to an FCC is usually that portion of the crude oil that has an initial boiling point of 644°F (340°C) or higher at atmospheric pressure and an average molecular weight ranging from about 200 to 600 and above. This portion of the crude is often referred to as heavy gas oil or vacuum gas oil (HVGO). The FCC process vaporizes and breaks the long-chain molecules of the high-boiling hydrocarbons ...

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