Chapter 7

Culture and Other Factors that Influence Communication


Previous chapters focused on understanding relationships between the project, the project manager and the team, and their stakeholders. These relationships are as unique as the individuals themselves and have different applications depending on the type of stakeholder. The different types of stakeholders, whether they are categorized by “directions of influence” (upwards, downwards, sidewards, and outwards) (Bourne, 2012) or by typology (stake owner, stake watcher, stake keeper, or stake seeker)* (Fassin, 2012) or any other typology, will have different relationships and by extension will require different communication strategies.

Communication is all there is to ...

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