Projects have beginnings, middle periods, and endings. This may seem self-evident, but it is not trivial if you are concerned with the management of projects, since where you are in the project life cycle will have a strong bearing on what you should be doing and what options are open to you.

There are many different ways to view the project life cycle. One of the most common has the life cycle broken into four broad phases: project conception, planning, implementation, and termination. In the information sciences, one often-used approach cycle focuses on these six phases: needs recognition, requirements definition, system design, implementation, testing, and maintenance.

Figure I.1 provides a graphical approach to the ...

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