Culture includes values—that is, conceptions of the desirable. For example, values specify how much freedom people should have to determine the kinds of research problems they will tackle or what level of equality there should be within the organization (e.g., whether people should feel "great respect" and distance from their supervisors or be able to walk into their offices and feel close to them).

Related to values are norms, which are ideas about desirable behaviors for members of the organization. Organizations have norms about many things (for example, how much to produce). A norm many research organizations have is that its members should try to publish at least one paper in a refereed ...

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