This chapter is for those who are thinking of introducing change in their organization and is designed to give the manager an overall idea of what goes on in organizational change and how to evaluate it. When the change is substantial, the manager should get help from consultants either inside or outside the organization.

Organizational change can focus on individuals, dyads (e.g., supervisor–subordinate), teams, or the whole organization. One can focus on cognitive skills (e.g., how to analyze a problem), affective changes (e.g., how to feel about one's competitors), or behaviors (e.g., how to behave correctly in particular situations). Thus, potentially, there are 4 × 3 = 12 kinds of organizational ...

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