1 The Scientific Representation of the Living World: A Dual Concept Between Nature’s and Humans’ Shares

“Like the other natural sciences, biology has now become quite disillusioned. It no longer searches for truth. It builds its own truth”1 [JAC 09, p. 25].

The scientific representation of the living world refers to the way in which scientists figure out life. In a way, it is the duplicate of the real object, which is constructed; it is not reality, but it makes sense of this reality. We often speak more specifically of scientific representation to include the concepts, laws and theories that make it possible to understand any area of knowledge. The following discussion will concern the scientific representations of the living world through the history of sciences based on the marine example. Natural sciences are logo-theoretical; namely, they are the result of an abstract rhetoric based on notions, ideas and concepts. “According to them, human endeavors of knowing [should] not produce anything, but only reflect (the ideal of the contemplation of essences) and represent (the ideal of the rhetoric and the book)”2 [HOT 97, p. 160]. Nature is what it shows [HAD 04], which helps us to explain the assimilation of nature to the sphere of what exists, and what is given (see section 1.1).

Besides the “natural result of life which goes its own way and only recognizes its own law”3 [MIC 97, p. 142], a modified, handled, transformed and constructed living world that is represented by ...

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