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Mastering NGINX by Dimitri Aivaliotis

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Operating system limits

The operating system is often the last place we look to for discovering a problem. We assume that whoever set up the system has tuned the operating system for our workload and tested it under similar scenarios. This is often not the case. We sometimes need to look into the operating system itself to identify a bottleneck.

As with NGINX, there are two major areas where we can initially look for performance problems: file descriptor limits and network limits.

File descriptor limits

NGINX uses file descriptors in several different ways. The major use is to respond to client connections, each one using a file descriptor. Each outgoing connection (especially prevalent in proxy configurations) requires a unique IP:TCP port pair, ...

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