Conditional independence

We know from statistics that the notion of statistical independence says that the joint probability of two random variables A and B is just the product of their (marginal) probabilities. Sometimes, two variables may not be statistically independent of each other to begin with, but observing a third variable, C, might result in them becoming independent of each other. In short, we say that events A and B are conditionally independent given C, and we can express this as:

Conditional independence

For example, suppose that J represents the probability of being given a job offer at a particular company and G represents the probability of being accepted ...

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