We know from statistics that the notion of statistical independence says that the joint probability of two random variables, *A* and *B*, is just the product of their (marginal) probabilities. Sometimes, two variables may not be statistically independent of each other to begin with, but observing a third variable, *C*, might result in them becoming independent of each other. In short, we say that events *A* and *B* are **conditionally independent** given *C*, and we can express this as:

For example, suppose that *J* represents the probability of being given a job offer at a particular company and *G* represents the probability of being accepted ...

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