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Mastering Software Testing with JUnit 5 by Boni García

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Android in a nutshell

Android is a Linux-based software stack divided into several layers. Those layers, from down to top are the following:

  • Linux kernel: This is the foundation of the Android platform. This layer contains all the low-level device drivers for the various hardware components of an Android device.
  • Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL): This layer provides standard interfaces that expose hardware capabilities to the higher-level Java API framework.
  • Android Runtime (ART): It provides a runtime environment for .dex files, a bytecode format designed for minimal memory footprint. ART was the first release on Android 5.0 (see table below). Prior to that version, Dalvik was the Android runtime.
  • Native C/C++ libraries: This layer contains ...

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