We no longer work as we used to. By the mid-nineteenth century, new technologies produced in the U.S. and Europe (and later Japan) allowed complex tasks to be performed by a much larger number of employees than ever before. The older, artisan-based division of labor, as seen in Adam Smith’s famous pin factory, with its paternalistic management structure, would never suffice for the railroads, cotton factories, chemical plants, steel mills, and munition works that were cropping up all over Western Europe and the Northeastern U.S. Something new had to be developed to manage this new form of work, to manage the new factories and mill workers, and to manage their final mass-produced products.

As Horace said, nothing ever comes from nothing. ...

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