Chapter 19. The Characterization of Materials

In this chapter we examine the techniques that are used to study the composition, crystal structure, and microstructure of materials. Examples of the information they provide have been presented in the preceding chapters. There are simple and rapid measurement techniques; the optical microscope quickly reveals the microstructure of a material when its features are not smaller than one micrometer; a handheld X-ray fluorescence device provides an instantaneous measure of the composition of a material. On the other hand, there are powerful instruments such as the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope, which is capable of providing an image with better than nanometer resolution and at the same time ...

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