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Materials Science of Thin Films, 2nd Edition by Milton Ohring

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Chapter 3 Thin-Film Evaporation Processes

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter marks the beginning of our discussion on the deposition of thin films, and we start by focusing on evaporation in vacuum as the means. The objective of this deposition process is to controllably transfer atoms from a heated source to a substrate located a distance away, where film formation and growth proceed atomistically. Quite simply, thermal energy is imparted to atoms in a liquid or solid source such that their temperature is raised to the point where they either efficiently evaporate or sublime. Evaporation differs from sputtering, another method for physically depositing films. In sputtering atoms are ejected from source surfaces usually maintained at room temperature, ...

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