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Materials Science of Thin Films, 2nd Edition by Milton Ohring

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Chapter 11 Interdiffusion, Reactions, and Transformations in Thin Films

11.1 INTRODUCTION

There is hardly an area related to thin-film formation, properties, and performance that is uninfluenced by mass-transport phenomena. This is especially true of microelectronic applications where very small lateral as well as depth dimensions of device features and film structures are involved. When these characteristic dimensions (d) become comparable in magnitude to atomic diffusion lengths, then compositional change can be expected. New phases in the form of precipitates, layered compounds, or even voids may form from ensuing reactions and alter the initial film integrity through, for example, generation of stress or decrease of adhesion. This, in turn, ...

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