Chapter 5

This chapter is a slight departure from the previous chapters, being a commentary on how Bayes’ Theorem from the study of probability can illuminate a wealth of problems in the social and biological sciences.

It concerns conditional statements of the form “What is the probability of an event *A* given that some other event, *B,* has taken place?” I write this in shorthand as prob(*A*|*B*). The theorem in question relates this assertion to its mirror image prob(*B*|*A*), in which *A* and *B* are interchanged. I want to illustrate this idea by a number of unusual and perhaps-unfamiliar examples, although I begin with two better-known illustrations in order to ...

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