The set of complex numbers is a field containing the set of real numbers and the “imaginary” number *i*. The number *i* is defined to be the square root of –1:

**Equation A.1. **

Thus, the square root of any negative number *–n* can be written as

**Equation A.2. **

A *complex number z* is one of the form

**Equation A.3. **

where *a* and

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