A Cartesian coordinate system is characterized by three mutually perpendicular axes, usually named *x, y*, and *z*. As shown in Figure C.1, a point **P** can be expressed as

**Equation C.1. **

where **i**, **j**, and **k** are unit vectors parallel to the three axes. The scalars x, *y*, and *z* are the Cartesian coordinates of the point **P**.

**Figure C.1. Cartesian coordinates.**

The gradient operator ▽ has the following form in Cartesian coordinates.

**Equation C.2. **

In other coordinate systems in which a point **P** has coordinates *u, v*, and ...

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