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MCSE: Windows 2000 Exams in a Nutshell by Paul Murphy, Michael Moncur

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TCP/IP

Network Access Layer

Handles physical network topology and media
Protocols: Ethernet, Token Ring, SLIP, PPP, Frame Relay, etc.

Internet Layer

Handles routing and communication between networks
IP (Internet Protocol): Combines data into packets; handles IP addressing
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol): Network management, diagnostics, and messaging
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol): Converts IP to MAC addresses
RARP (Reverse ARP): Converts MAC addresses to IP addresses
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol): Assigns IP addresses and other configuration.

Host-to-Host Layer

Provides a layer of abstraction in communication between hosts
Provides applications with a consistent interface
TCP: Connection-oriented, reliable, full-duplex
UDP: Connectionless, unreliable, slightly faster transmissions

Process/Application Layer

Supports applications and high-level services
Protocols: Telnet, FTP, TFTP, HTTP, NFS, DNS, SMTP, POP, IMAP, NNTP, SNMP, etc.

IP Address Classes

Class

Network /Host Bytes

Number of Networks

Number of Hosts per Network

A

1/3

126

16,777,214

B

2/2

16,382

65,534

C

3/1

2,097,150

254

Subnet Masking

Subdivides a network by using bits from host address
Number of subnets available: 2^(number of bits) -2

Class

Default Subnet Mask

A

255.0.0.0

B

255.255.0.0

C

255.255.255.0

Private IP Address Ranges

Address Class

Starting Address

Ending Address

A

10.0.0.0

10.255.255.255

B

169.254.0.1

169.254.255.254

C

172.16.0.0

172.31.255.255

C

192.168.0.0

192.168.255.255 ...

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