Designing Name Resolution Services
As discussed earlier in this chapter, TCP/IP supports hostnames, or alphanumeric aliases corresponding to particular IP addresses. These provide a user-friendly alternative to IP addresses and can be used in most places an IP address would be accepted.
When a client attempts to access a machine via its hostname, a process called hostname resolution occurs. Name resolution is typically accomplished by two services:
DNS (Domain Name Service) for IP hostnames (fully qualified domain names, or FQDNs)
WINS (Windows Internet Name Service) for NetBIOS hostnames, used to support versions of Windows prior to Windows 2000
The following sections describe the process of designing a DNS implementation for a network, including WINS support if needed.
Basic DNS Design
DNS is a standard for hostname resolution that was first developed for Unix and is defined by RFCs 1034 and 1035. DNS is the standard for name resolution on the Internet and is also used locally in many networks. Windows 2000 machines can act as DNS clients or servers.
DNS servers use zones, or databases of names and their corresponding addresses. Windows 2000’s DNS server supports three basic types of zones:
- Traditional DNS zone (primary)
Traditional zones store the zone database in a file on the computer running DNS Server. There can only be one primary zone per network, and this is the only zone that allows updates to the DNS database.
- Traditional DNS zone (secondary)
Secondary zones store a read-only ...